Environmental Protection Agency EPA has several ongoing activities that require speciated volatile organic compound VOC or particulate matter PM profiles from several source categories. In addition to the VOC profiles, Volume I contains profile assignments that link a profile to a source category. For categories where profile data are not available, the profile assignments are based on engineering judgement.
Handbook of Thermal Conductivity, Volume 1: Organic Compounds C1 to C4 by Carl L. Yaws - lorenchsoha.tk
It was developed from multiple sources of information. A large number of PM profiles were developed by contacting researchers working in the areas of PM species profile development and source receptor modeling. These researchers were questioned regarding the availability of PM species profile data that were not already contained in the Source Composition Library or the Air Emissions Species Manual. New species profiles were developed from data submitted by the researchers for a variety of source categories. A limited number of new PM profiles developed from literature review are also included in the PM data base.
Introduction 1 2. Chemical Species Classification E-l F. Data File Description F-l G. Some of these activities are preparation of air toxics and acid precipitation emission inventories, acid precipitation modeling studies, receptor modeling, and ozone strategy development. These eight profiles are numbered to and pertain to crude oil production and processing sources. The only other change to the first edition of the VOC Species Manual, contained in the "Addendum," relates to corrections that were made in three profiles for mobile sources.
Minor revisions were made to existing VOC profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles to reflect corrections necessary for compounds that coelute on the gas chromatography analyses.
The specific VOC profiles affected by the revisions are , , and Of these profiles, about 30 percent are extracted from the VOC Data Manual, about 65 percent are new profiles developed from existing data or based on engineering judgement, and about 5 percent are new profiles from the VOC species field program. In addition, this document contains about 50 industry- specific average profiles.
Handbook of thermal conductivity, Volume 1: Organic Compounds C1 to C4
The profiles from the VOC Data Manual cover the following source categories: petroleum products, surface coating operations, external and internal combustion, solid waste disposal, primary and secondary metal production, and asphalt production. Most of the new profiles developed from existing data represent the following source categories: organic chemical manufacturing, storage of organic chemicals, aircraft emissions, oil and gas production, surface coating operations, mobile sources, and gasoline evaporation.
The VOC profile data contained in this volume are presented in a format that is basically the same as the one used in the Data Manual. However, the number of categories to be characterized is much larger than the available profiles. Therefore, profile assignments that involve linking a VOC profile to a source category that does not have an original profile assignment are developed using engineering judgement. Source category profile assignments are especially important in activities such as preparation of air toxics and acid precipitation emission inventories and acid precipitation modeling studies.
For several SCO's, profile assignments using engineering judgement were not possible; however, in such cases, industry-specific average profiles were developed.
These profiles were developed from original profiles representing other SCC's within the same industry group. The industry-specific average profiles are intended for use only if there is no other information available. In addition, a "zero" profile which is an overall average based on all the VOC profiles in the data base was developed.
Environmental Protection Agency EPA has several ongoing activities that require speciated volatile organic compound VOC profiles from several source categories. Some of these activities are preparation of acid precipitation and air toxics emission inventories and ozone strategy development. Profiles for which there were no replacements were retained in the data base even if the profiles were of low data quality. In cases where there were several profiles representing a given source category, the most general profile with the highest quality level was selected. The original references used in developing these profiles in the VOC Data Manual were also included as part of the references listed in this report.
The profiles from the VOC Data Manual are identified by profile numbers ranging from through The key sources of information used included a study conducted for the California Air Resources Board Reference 1 , source assessment and background information documents, Section responses and trip reports from several standard development activities, and work conducted by the Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory. In addition to the profiles developed from existing data, five new VOC profiles were developed from original data that resulted from a VOC speciation test program see Appendix G for details.
These profiles represent the following source categories: gasoline marketing, degreasing, drycleaning, autobody repair, and graphic arts-printing. Overall, close to new profiles were developed. About 80 percent of the new profiles cover source categories that were not characterized in the VOC Data Manual, e.
Most of these profiles cover the surface coating operations, mobile sources, and gasoline evaporation.
Handbook of Thermal Conductivity
Other profiles developed in this study included pure component profiles to represent storage or solvent usage operations that involve handling and use of pure compounds. Development of these profiles was based on engineering judgement. In several cases, speciated data were available from a single emission source. The Addendum document served to add eight new VOC profiles and make revisions to three existing data base profiles.
Tulsa recently conducted a sampling and analysis program to quantify emissions of 30 organic compounds from six different types of oil field operations.
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The VOC profiles added to the data base by the Tulsa data are numbered to The revisions to the existing data base involved mobile sources profiles. Minor revisions were made to the VOC profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles to reflect corrections necessary for compounds that coelute on the gas chromatography analyses. Ideally, each source category would be characterized by an appropriate VOC profile.
Since there are much fewer species profiles than source categories, a VOC profile is assigned to other source categories that are judged to be similar to the source category ies having the original profile. For example, Profile Data Quality A was assigned to profiles that were considered representative of the total population of sources within a given SCC and that were based on sound analytical techniques with full documentation.
Profiles based on engineering judgement and that may not be considered representative of the total population were assigned Profile Data Quality E. A more detailed discussion on profile data quality is contained in Section 2. Data quality indicators were also used to characterize the VOC profile assignments.
Where the VOC profile assignment is based on an original profile, the data quality indicator reflects the Profile Data Quality on the profile see Section 3. In cases where the assignment is based on engineering judgement, the data quality is typically lowered one or more levels depending on how well the profile represents the "new" category. For several SCC's, profile assignment using engineering judgement was not possible. In such cases, industry-specific average profiles were developed from original profiles representing other SCC's within the same industry group.
These profiles have numbers starting with 9 and are recommended for use only if there is no other information available. In addition, Profile which is an overall average based on all the profiles in the data base was developed. This profile is intended for use only as a default profile in applications such as emission inventory development. The "zero" profile is applied to those SCC's characterized by "zero" or "negligible" VOC emission factors and for which the States or any other agency have reported nonzero VOC emissions. This document is divided into four sections with numerous supporting appendices.
Section 1 contains this introduction. Section 2 describes the VOC species profile format and discusses the applicability of VOC profiles in various activities. Section 3 contains the VOC profiles for both point sources and area sources, followed by the list of references. Although the profiles in the Data Manual contain chemical classification information for each species, this information is not included in this document, since there are several different classification schemes currently used.
However, two examples are included in Appendix E. Another item that is not included in the new VOC profile format is information on volumetric or molar composition volumetric or molar percentages. Several manual users indicated that this information is of very little use in their work. Each of the entries in Table is described below: Profile name: In a majority of the cases, the profile name is the descriptor used for the applicable source category.
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In cases where a particular profile is applicable to more than one source category, a more general term is used to identify a given profile. Profile number: This is a unique number assigned arbitrarily to a profile. Profile data quality: A ranking scheme is employed to assign data quality indicators to each profile. This approach is similar to the one used in the Data Manual and also consistent with the approach used in AP for emission factors.